Gerund and Its Forms. Learn Gerund with definition and its types in detail step by step with definitions, examples, and solved exercises.
Gerund and Its Forms | How to Use Gerund
Definition of Gerund
A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in “ing” and is partly a verb and partly a noun. (It is a verbial noun).
The gerund and the infinitive can have the force to act as a noun and a verb. Therefore, their uses are also similar or identical.
Smoking is injurious to health.
It is also defined as the “ing” form that acts the same as a noun does. For instance, “writing is art.” In this example, “writing” belongs to a gerund and it behaves like a noun.
Furthermore, gerunds are such words, are constructed from “verbs” but behave as nouns. The learner can easily locate or find them as we know gerunds are the verbs having “ing” linked at the end of the word.
There are many uses or applications of the gerund. We can use it in a sentence as a different part of speech at different places of a sentence. Let us where and how gerund is used.
1. The Use of Gerund
1. Subject of a Verb
I. Smoking is injurious to health.
ii. Drinking breeds many diseases.
iii. Walking is useful for health.
2. Object of a Transitive verb
I. I hate gambling.
ii. Children stopped talking.
iii. We enjoy playing on Sunday.
3. Subject of a Preposition
i. She is fond of singing.
ii. I am tired of studying.
iii. He is in the habit of smoking.
Learn prepositions completely.
4. Complement of a verb
i. Seeing is believing.
ii. The most hated thing is lying.
iii. Hearing is obeying.
iv. What he likes best is fishing.
5. As a Compound Noun
i. A flying plane(A plane for flying).
ii. A frying pan( A pan for frying).
iii. A swimming costume(A costume for swimming).
6. Preceded By a Noun or Pronoun
Note: When a gerund is preceded by a noun or pronoun, it must be in the possessive form. (Ali’s, Ahmad’s, my, your, his, her, our, etc.) as the gerund is finally a Noun.
i. He insisted on my being present in the meeting.
ii. I hope you will justify my leaving very soon.
iii. She persisted in Ali’s staying with her.
iv. I postponed telling Joseph the actual matter.
7. Sometimes, a Gerund in the Possessive case is not Used:
(A). When it Denotes a Lifeless Thing.
i. There is no possibility of a train coming late.
ii. There is a possibility of the bus being late.
iii. I hope the car reaching soon.
(B). When a plural Noun finished in “S”
i. I like the boys playing hockey.
ii. She wants the girls being present.
iii. I want the toys being imported.
(C) When Gerund is Used in the Passive Form
I. He was being sent to jail.
ii. Shoaib was being dismissed from service.
iii. Students were being taught a lesson.
EXERCISE No.1 of Gerund and Its Forms
Provide suitable Gerund in the following sentences.
1. Smoke is injurious to health.
2. Hunt is my favorite game.
3. Fly birds look beautiful.
4. I like smile faces.
5. He dislikes stand in a queue.
6.I am fond of hunt.
7. I hate smoke.
8. She taught me knit.
9. Gamble is a bad habit.
10. Read gives me joys.
11. Children love play.
12. I disapprove of sleep all the time.
13. Smoke is not allowed in the office.
14. Give is better than receive.
15. Swim is his hobby.
16. Tell lies leads to problems.
17. Question is easier than answer.
18. Drink breads many diseases.
19. I thanked him for come early.
20. Will you excuse my leave early?
21. Write on charts with colors, is my passion.
22. Play in national team, is everyone’s dream.
Note: Add “ing” to the underlined word to make Participle or Gerund.
Difference between Gerund and Present Participle
Gerund and present participle both are a form of the verb which ends in “ing”.
(A) Gerung is partly a verb and noun partly also.
(B) Participle is partly a verb but partly an adjective.
(C) Gerund is verb-noun whereas participle is a verb-adjective.
| He is fond of playing cards.|
He is tired of walking.
I like twinkling faces.
| Playing cards, he set to work.|
Walking alone, he is tired.
She went away smiling.
More Difference between Gerund and Present Participle
|A singing hall. A sleeping room. A traveling uniform. A smiling look. A swimming costume. A playing bat.||A singing boy. A sleeping baby. A traveling party. A smiling girl. A swimming person. A playing boy.|
Note: In the examples above, we find one word common in every two sentences but the second is different. We see that when the “ing” verb is followed by a person, it forms adverbial adjective but when it is followed by an inanimate thing, it forms a compound noun.
EXERCISE No.2 Gerund and Its Forms
Identify Participles and Gerunds in the following sentences.
1. Telling lies, he defrauded the villager.
2. Walking on foot, I noticed a dead cobra.
3. Playing cards is not allowed here.
4. She is fond of writing articles.
5. Holding his stick, he ran to the gate.
6. Please teach me swimming.
7. Giving is better than receiving.
8. Seeing is believing.
9. Hearing the noise, I woke up.
10. Working all day, she was fatigued.
11. She is fond of singing songs.
12. Singing a song, he earned money.
13. Smiling faces mean hypocrisy.
14. He talks to everyone smiling.
15. He had an exciting adventure.
16. Exciting games attract us.
17. He is tired of sleeping.
18. Sleeping the whole night, he caused a loss to himself.
19. I like fishing.
20. Fishing a lot, he made a mess.
Answers Gerund and Its Forms:
1 Telling (P) 2. Walking (p) 3. Playing (G)
4. Writing (G) 5. Seizing (P) 6. Swimming (G)
7. Giving, Receiving (G) 8. Seeing, believing (G)
9. Hearing (p) 10. Working (P) 11. Singing (P)
12. Singing (P) 13. Smiling (G) 14. Smiling (P)
15. Exciting (G) 16. Exciting (G) 17. Sleeping (G)
18. Sleeping (P) 19. Fishing (G) 20. Fishing (P)
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